The Amazon River dolphin, Inia geoffrensis: What have we learned in the last two decades of research?


Da Silva, VMF

Additional Authors

Brum, SM; Mello, DMD; Amaral, RS; Gravena, W; Campbell, E; Gonçalves, RS, & Mintzer, VJ



Volume & Issue

18(1), 139-157



Country / Region

South America

Document Type

Peer-reviewed journal article


Amazon river dolphin

Science Keywords

Habitat Use, behavior, distribution, Genetics, Reproduction, Taxonomy, Abundance, Species review, Movements

Conservation Measure

Species knowledge and understanding

Threat Keywords

All threats reviewed


In the last decades, knowledge about the biology of the Amazon River dolphin Inia geoffrensis has increased considerably. Accordingly, we present a review of the published  literature on this river dolphin, with a focus on the topics with the most advancements and those that are important to the species’ conservation. We also present new information, including emerging knowledge on the other putative species of Inia. We summarize the current knowledge of the biology of Inia, aspects of taxonomy, distribution, life history and reproduction, genetics, anatomy and physiology, health, behavior, ecology, demographic parameters, and population trends. We also highlight the main anthropogenic threats affecting the species and the resulting conservation efforts.